Web-based applications nowadays, are much more complex and use multiple technologies and frameworks. In recent years, we’ve seen two concepts dominate the IT market:
- moving apps to the cloud;
- implementing a microservices architecture;
In a way, today we are no longer building applications; instead, we are building platforms. Today’s high performance apps, have to communicate with each other through lightweight communication protocols, like REST APIs or RPC calls. This model has made it possible to create some of the most popular apps like Facebook, Netflix, Uber, and many others.
Let’s take a look at some of the problems driving innovation in modern cloud ready web app development. Then we’ll dive into the basics of event-driven architecture (EDA), which tries to address these problems by thinking about back-end architecture in a novel way.
The problems with modern web apps:
The tech stack and framework of today’s apps have to handle the challenges of being always-on, asynchronous and support multi-user while delivering an intuitive user experience across multiple devices.
- Availability – Instead of one application, we now have many, dozens maybe in large applications even hundreds of linked services, and each and one of them has to be ready to do its job 24/7. How can we do that? Most often the service is horizontally scaled to multiple instances, sometimes across multiple data centers, making it highly-available. All the requests coming into this specific service will be routed evenly across all instances. Some deployment tools offer self-healing capabilities, so if one instance goes down, it will create another instance to take its place and avoid any downtime for end users. Availability is all about making sure that there is at least one instance of the service up and running, ready to serve incoming requests.
- Scalability – Scalability, is focused on performance. If one application is overloaded, then we can create new instances of that application to accommodate the increased number of requests. But scaling up applications is not challenge-free, especially if we deal with stateful applications.
- Single source of truth – Before microservices, all the data used to reside in a single place, typically some sort of relational database. But when multiple services share a database, you may create problems like dependencies between teams on schema changes or performance issues. A common pattern to solve this issue is to use a database per service. A distributed source of truth really helps maintain clean architecture, but we now have to deal with distributed transactions and the complexity of maintaining multiple databases.
- Synchronous – In a typical request-response scenario, the client waits for the server to respond; it blocks all its activities until it receives a response or the timeout expires. If we take this behaviour and put it in a microservices architecture using chained calls across the system, it deteriorates the application performance significantly. Everything starts with one service call, let’s call it service A. But then, service A needs to call service B, and the chain goes on. The problem with this behaviour is that if a service has resources blocked (e.g: a thread is hanging), timeouts are now exponential. If we allow a 500 ms timeout per service and there are five service calls in the chain, then the first service would need to have a 2500 ms (2.5 seconds) timeout, whereas the last service would need to have a 500 ms timeout.
Introducing event-driven architecture:
In the erstwhile classic three-tier applications, the core of our system was the database. In EDA, the focus is now shifted towards the events and how they are flowing through the system. This shift allowed us to completely change the way cloud applications are designed to tackle above mentioned challenges.
Before actually seeing how EDA does that, let’s see what exactly an event is. An event is an action that triggers either a notification or some kind of change in the state of the application. A light has been switched on (notification), the thermostat turned off the heating system (notification), a user changed his address (state change), or one of the users changed their phone number (state change). All of these are events, but that doesn’t mean we should add them to an event-driven solution. In order for an event to be added, it must be relevant to the business. A user placing a new order is a relevant event for that specific business / use case.
Which events are relevant to a business might be obvious when you think about them, but some of them might not. Especially those events that occur as a reaction to other events. To discover events that are flowing through the system, use a technique called Event Storming. Bring together the stakeholders on an application (from software engineers to business people and domain experts) and map out all the business processes as specific events. After all the business processes are mapped, the result can be used by engineering teams as requirements to build their applications.
Building event-driven architecture:
Having figured out what these events are and how they can be identified, let’s now have a look over how they can solve the common problems mentioned earlier.
Events flow in a single direction, from a producer to a consumer. Compare this with a REST call. The event producer never expects a response from the consumer, while in a REST call there will always be a response. No response, no need to block the code execution until something else happens. This makes events asynchronous by nature, completely eliminating the risk of running through timeouts.
Events happen as the result of an action, so there is no target system; we can’t really say service A triggers events to service B; what we can say is service B is interested in the events produced by service A. But there may be some other parties interested as well, like service C or D.
So how can we make sure that an event triggered by one system, reaches all the interested services? Most of the time this problem is solved by message brokers. A broker is nothing more than an application that acts as a middle-man between the event generator (the application that created the event) and the event consumer. This way, the applications are nicely decoupled taking care of the Availability issue I talked about earlier in the post. If an application is not available momentarily, when it comes back online, it will start consuming events and processing them, catching up with all the events triggered when the application was down.
What about storage? Can events be stored in a database or will there be something else in place? Events can definitely be stored in databases, but by doing so, they lose their “event” aspect. After an event happens, we cannot change it, so events are immutable. Databases on the other hand are mutable, we can actually change data after it has been inserted.
A better approach to store events is by using Event Logs. Event logs are nothing more than a centralized data store where each event is stored as a sequence of immutable records, also called a log. Imagine the log as a journal, where each new event is appended to the end of the list. We can always recreate the latest state by replaying all the events from log from the beginning until present.
Services built using the event-driven mindset are designed to be deployed in a multi-instance scenario. Since the state itself is stored in the event log, the service itself will be stateless, which allows surgical scaling of any particular service that we want.
Although event-driven architecture has existed for more than 15 years, has it gained massive popularity only recently. Most companies are going through a “digital transformation” phase, and building some complex SaaS and web applications. The complexity of these applications force engineers to adopt new ways of designing software, ones that incur less coupling between services and lower maintenance overhead. EDA is one of the best solution to these problems. Some features may still require good old-fashioned synchronous REST APIs or storing data in a relational database. Check with domain experts who have hands-on experience of building such complex cloud ready applications and zero in on what is best for your application!
Source: This article first appeared on stackoverflow blog.